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An epidemic that spreads to several countries becomes a pandemic.

If it is a new pathogen, there are questions about how it spreads and how to contain it.

Cures and vaccines are months, if not years away. There is often much confusion and panic.

Ethical guidelines can help policymakers avoid over- or under-reacting to the threat.


Select a common ethical issue to see recommendations for ethical action:

Select a phase for information on ethical issues before, during, and after a pandemic: