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Because pandemics are worldwide, the findings of research are often of urgent interest to the world

  • Where information sharing is important to protecting the public health, measures that safeguard personal, private information should be in place and support should be given to ill individuals, family members, and others potentially stigmatized by real or potential illness. CDC Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • The ethically appropriate and rapid sharing of data can help identify etiological factors, predict disease spread, evaluate existing and novel treatment, symptomatic care and preventative measures, and guide the deployment of limited resources. WHO Ethics in an Outbreak
  • Biospecimens should not be transferred outside of the countries from which they are collected without formal material transfer agreements. WHO Ethics in an Outbreak
  • There is a commitment to transparency throughout the pandemic influenza planning and response process. CDC Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Ensure data validity, account for the limitations of available data, determine statistical thresholds for defining significance, and take steps to assist others who use the data, including the media and policymakers, so they will not draw inappropriate conclusions regarding cause and effect. APHA Code of Ethics, 4.2.4.
  • Require reporting of findings promptly, especially to individuals and community partners who contributed data to the investigation. APHA Code of Ethics, 4.2.7.
  • Where interventions are found to be safe and effective, those interventions should be made available to local populations as soon as possible, including via monitored emergency use of unregistered and investigational interventions when appropriate. WHO Ethical standards for research during public health emergencies
  • Individuals and communities that participate in research should, where relevant, have access to any benefits that result from their participation. WHO Ethics in an Outbreak
  • All efforts should be made to provide fair access to the benefits of research conducted during emergencies. WHO Ethical standards for research during public health emergencies
  • Ensure that resulting interventions do not have a disproportionately negative impact on minority or otherwise vulnerable populations (including children and elders) and that there is an effort to enhance the resilience of populations and ecosystems to prevent future harm. APHA Code of Ethics, 4.2.9.
  • Broad international cooperation in the development and dissemination of vaccines and treatments is in the interests of all countries as such cooperation offers the best chance of minimizing the global impact of an influenza epidemic. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • The United States recognizes its membership in the global community, and the pandemic planning process acknowledges the importance of working with and learning from preparedness efforts globally. CDC Ethics in Pandemic Flu