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A pandemic affects multiple countries and institutions simultaneously. Similarly, a successful pandemic response requires extensive collaboration between countries and institutions.


  • Promote collaboration between countries, par­ticularly at the regional level. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Promote cross-border cooperation in surveillance and exchange of information at all periods including pre-pandemic, pandemic alert, pandemic and post-pandemic periods. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Facilitate countries’ participation with WHO in joint rapid containment efforts in order to stop, or at least slow, the spread of the initial emergence of pandemic influenza. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Promote the timely and accurate sharing of sci­entific information. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Promote international evaluation or peer review of national influenza pandemic preparedness plans through a public and transparent process, taking into account the availability of resources WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Broad international cooperation in the develop­ment and dissemination of vaccines and treat­ments is in the interests of all countries as such cooperation offers the best chance of minimizing the global impact of an influenza pandemic. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • The United States recognizes its membership in the global community, and the pandemic planning process acknowledges the importance of working with and learning from preparedness efforts globally. CDC Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • The resource constraints facing developing countries, as well as the global nature of the threat, underscore the importance of international coop­eration in developing a global response to an influ­enza pandemic. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Address needs for both financial and techni­cal assistance (e.g. collaboration for laboratory diagnosis) WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Incorporate fair and objective criteria for provid­ing assistance [to another country] WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Ensure that [donated] resources are directed according to need rather than for political reasons. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Provide donated medications and pandemic vaccines at no cost to the recipient, in order to promote equitable access. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • Pass on any unneeded donations to other countries that can use them. WHO Ethics in Pandemic Flu
  • The developed world should continue to invest in the surveillance capacity of developing countries, and should also make investments to further improve the overall public health infrastructure of developing countries. University of Toronto
  • A best practice approach is obtained through partnership and agreement with the owners of facilities (e.g., schools, stadiums, etc.) that may be used. Indiana University
  • Through partnerships with owners/administrators of potential alternate care sites, planners may develop procedures that will ensure the public’s health needs are met, while assuring owners their facilities will be properly insured and protected. Indiana University
  • Hospitals in the same region should abide by the same triage protocols. Acute care facilities should adopt a common procedure to conduct a daily retrospective review of all triage decisions in order to provide accountability and identify areas of the protocol in need of improvement. Indiana University
  • Promote openness among the government, nongovernmental entities, and the public regarding resource allocation and performance improvement. APHA Code of Ethics, 4.12.3.